San Francisco has become the first US city to ban e-cigarette sales until their health effects are clearer.
Officials on Tuesday voted to ban stores selling the vaporisers and made it illegal for online retailers to deliver to addresses in the city.
The California city is home to Juul Labs, the most popular e-cigarette producer in the US.
Juul said the move would drive smokers back to cigarettes and “create a thriving black market”.
San Francisco’s mayor, London Breed, has 10 days to sign off the legislation, but has indicated that she would. The law would begin to be enforced seven months from that date, although there have been reports firms could mount a legal challenge.