The lines are being starkly drawn. There will be more blood shed before this is settled.
The Catalan regional parliament has voted to declare independence from Spain, while the Spanish parliament has approved direct rule over the region.
Catalan MPs backed the motion 70-10 in a ballot boycotted by the opposition.
Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy earlier told senators direct rule was needed to return “law, democracy and stability” to Catalonia.
The crisis began when Catalans backed independence in a disputed vote earlier this month.