Totalitarianism is advancing as democracy retreats.
President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s push for an executive presidency succeeded with 51.4% voting for it.
The win was met with both celebrations and protests across Turkey.
What’s in the new constitution?
- The president will have a five-year tenure, for a maximum of two terms
- The president will be able to directly appoint top public officials, including ministers and one or several vice-presidents
- The job of prime minister will be scrapped
- The president will have power to intervene in the judiciary, which Mr Erdogan has accused of being influenced by Fethullah Gulen, the Pennsylvania-based preacher he blames for the failed coup in July
- The president will decide whether or not impose a state of emergency
Mr Erdogan says the changes are needed to address Turkey’s security challenges after last July’s attempted coup, and to avoid the fragile coalition governments of the past.
The new system, he argues, will resemble those in France and the US and will bring calm in a time of turmoil marked by a Kurdish insurgency, Islamist militancy and conflict in neighbouring Syria, which has led to a huge refugee influx.
Critics of the changes fear the move will make the president’s position too powerful, arguing that it amounts to one-man rule, without the checks and balances of other presidential systems such as those in France and the US.